Research work in the laboratory with antibodies and immunoassays involves familiarizing yourself with a number of specific terms around immunology, immunoglobulins, and the immune response.
In this entry we bring you a short glossary of antibodies that includes the basic and fundamental terminology to better understand the functioning and applications of immunoglobulins in the research laboratory.
Chemical compound that is added to the antigen to increase its immunogenicity and thus stimulate the animal’s immune response for the production of antibodies. Freud’s complete / incomplete adjuvants and aluminum hydroxide are among the most common adjuvants.
Measure of interaction or binding between the antigen and the antibody.
Proteins produced by B lymphocytes of the immune system, also known as immunoglobulins, that identify, bind, and help destroy antigens in a highly specific way.
Antibodies chemically linked to fluorochromes or chromogens to enable visual detection of them.
Antibody with which the ELISA plate is covered and which binds to the antigen contained in the sample to be applied later.
Primary antibody that is used in the sandwich ELISA and that specifically binds to the immobilized antigen.
Genetically engineered antibody where a minimal part of a murine antibody (5-10%) is introduced into a human antibody (90-95%) in order to minimize the response of the human immune system against them.
Homogeneous population of antibodies produced by a single B lymphocyte clone that specifically recognize a single epitope of the antigen.
Heterogeneous solution of antibodies produced by different B lymphocytes that recognize different epitopes of the same antigen.
Antibody that binds directly to the antigen of interest.
Genetically engineered antibody by fusing parts of a murine antibody (33%) with parts of a human antibody (67%).
Conjugated antibody that binds to the primary antibody that recognizes the antigen of interest.
A single clone of a specific antibody produced by a cell line that is administered for therapeutic purposes. Therapeutic antibodies can be murine, chimeric, humanized, or fully human.
Substance that arouses a specific immune response.
Serum from an immunized animal containing the antibodies of interest.
Affinity reagents with antibody-like applications, which specifically bind to the antigen of interest. Unlike antibodies, aptamers are produced in vitro and can be made up of peptides or nucleic acids.
Measurement of the binding strength of the antigen-antibody complexes.
A polypeptide subunit of an immunoglobulin located in each of the arms of the Y-shaped structure (each antibody contains two identical light chains). It has two subdomains: the constant region and the variable region that intervenes in binding to the antigen.
Polypeptide subunit of an antibody that defines its isotype. It consists of a constant region (which will vary depending on the immunoglobulin class) and a variable region that is involved in binding to the antigen.
Large, highly antigenic molecule that is conjugated to small antigens to induce a more effective and specific immune response in producing antibodies.
Numerical value indicating the binding strength between the antigen and the antibody.
OPTIMAL WORKING DILUTION
Antibody concentration with which the maximum positive signal and the minimum background noise and nonspecific signal are achieved.
The specific region of the antigen that is recognized and to which the antibody binds.
Ability of an antibody to bind only to the desired antigenic determinant.
The Fab or antigen-binding fragment is each of the 2 arms of the Y-shaped structure of the antibody. It is obtained after enzymatic digestion of the antibody with papain.
Small molecules that are only capable of arousing an immune response if they are linked to a Carrier protein.
Cell line resulting from the fusion of antibody-producing B lymphocytes with an immortalized tumor line (myeloma).
HOST (HOST SPECIES)
Animal species in which the antibodies are generated.
Ability of an antigen to induce the production of antibodies.
Substance capable of inducing an immune response.
Protein families that function as antibodies.
Immunoglobulin classes depending on the heavy chains they have.
Method to obtain antibodies by creating an ex vivo repertoire of immunoglobulins that can be screened against a specific antigen.
Fluid extracted from the abdomen of the host animal that contains monoclonal antibodies produced by the hybridomas previously inoculated in the animal.
Bone marrow tumor that can be adapted to grow indefinitely in cell culture.
Adsorption of the antiserum with proteins or serum of different species to eliminate the antibodies that can give rise to cross reactions.
Purification of the antibody against the specific antigen it recognizes.
PURIFICATION BY PROTEIN A / G
Class-specific purification to isolate all Immunoglobulins of a certain isotype, regardless of their affinity for the antigen of interest.
Species from which the epitope used in immunization was derived, or those with high homology for that sequence.
Binding of the antibody to similar epitopes of other proteins or antigens.
Region containing the antigen binding site.
Serum withdrawn before immunization that is used as a control.
Assay to determine the optimal concentration of an antibody for a specific application.